CNS tumor symptoms and diagnosis

The symptoms of a brain tumor depend on tumor size, type, and location. Symptoms may be caused when a tumor or the swelling around it presses on a nerve or important part of the brain. Also, symptoms may be caused when a tumor blocks the fluid that flows through and around the brain, or when the brain swells because of the buildup of fluid.

Common symptoms of brain tumors may include:

  • Headaches (usually worse in the morning)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in speech, vision, or hearing
  • Problems balancing or walking
  • Changes in mood, personality, or ability to concentrate
  • Problems with memory
  • Muscle jerking or twitching (seizures or convulsions)
  • Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs

Most often, however, these symptoms are not due to a brain tumor; another health problem could also cause them. If you have any of these symptoms, tell your doctor so that problem can be diagnosed and treated.

Common signs of spinal tumors may include:

  • Pain (back and/or neck pain, arm and/or leg pain)
  • Muscle weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
  • Difficulty walking
  • General loss of sensation
  • Difficulty with urination (incontinence)
  • Change in bowel habits (retention)
  • Paralysis to varying degrees

Diagnosis

A doctor can confirm a diagnosis of a brain or spinal cord tumor based on a patient’s symptoms, personal and family medical history, and results of a physical exam and specialized tests and techniques.

You may have one or more of the following tests:

Neurologic exam: Your doctor checks your vision, hearing, alertness, muscle strength, coordination and reflexes. Your doctor also examines your eyes to look for swelling caused by a tumor pressing on the nerve that connects the eye and the brain.

MRI: A large machine with a strong magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside your head. Sometimes a special dye (contrast material) is injected into a blood vessel in your arm or hand to help show differences in the tissues of the brain. The pictures can show abnormal areas, such as a tumor.

CT scan: An X-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your head. You may receive contrast material by injection into a blood vessel in your arm or hand. The contrast material makes abnormal areas easier to see.

Your doctor may ask for other tests, including:

Angiogram: Dye injected into the bloodstream makes blood vessels in the brain show up on an X-ray. If a tumor is present, the X-ray may show the tumor or blood vessels that are feeding into the tumor.

Spinal tap: Your doctor may remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord). This procedure is performed with local anesthesia. The doctor uses a long, thin needle to remove fluid from the lower part of the spinal column. A spinal tap takes about 30 minutes. You must lie flat for several hours afterward to keep from getting a headache. A laboratory checks the fluid for cancer cells or other signs of problems.

Biopsy: The removal of tissue to look for tumor cells is called a biopsy. A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells. A biopsy can show cancer, tissue changes that may lead to cancer, and other conditions. A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose a brain tumor, learn what grade it is, and plan treatment.