1-(2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro-ß-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil
A substance being studied in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. It blocks the growth of cells and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of uracil analog. Also called FAU.
1-methyl-d-tryptophan
A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma and many other types of cancer. 1-methyl-d-tryptophan blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells. Giving 1-methyl-d-tryptophan to patients who have received chemotherapy for cancer may help kill more tumor cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor and immunosuppressant. Also called D-1MT.
10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.
11C topotecan
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and lung cancer. 11C topotecan is a radioactive form of the anticancer drug topotecan. It builds up in tumor tissues and is detected by positron emission tomography (PET). It may be used to help determine whether treatment with topotecan will work. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor.
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and TPA.
123I-MIBG
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. 123I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called AdreView, iobenguane I 123, and iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine.
126–F
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126–F have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126–F is not available in the United States. Also called Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–101, JS–114, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.
13-cis retinoic acid
A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.
131I-MIBG
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 131 that is used to find or treat certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. It is also used to relieve pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Radiation from the I 131 may help kill cancer cells or show where they are in the body. 131I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called iobenguane I 131 and iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.
1572 form
A form that must be filed by an investigator running a clinical trial to study a new drug or agent. The investigator agrees to follow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Code of Federal Regulations for the clinical trial. The investigator verifies that he or she has the experience and background needed to conduct the trial and that it will be done in a way that is ethical and scientifically sound. Also called Form FDA 1572-Statement of Investigator.
17-AAG
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-AAG helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and tanespimycin.
17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin
17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.
17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and tanespimycin.
18F-choline
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-choline gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-choline. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromethylcholine, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.
18F-EF5
A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.
18F-FLT
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 18F-FLT is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine and fluorothymidine F 18.
18F-fluoromethylcholine
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-fluoromethylcholine gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-fluoromethylcholine. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.
18F-fluoromisonidazole
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-fluoromisonidazole is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-fluoromisonidazole in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-fluoromisonidazole is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-MISO and FMISO.
18F-FMCH
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-FMCH gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-FMCH. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-fluoromethylcholine, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.
18F-MISO
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-MISO is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-MISO in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-MISO is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromisonidazole and FMISO.
1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging
A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spatial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, MRSI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.
2-methoxyestradiol
2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.
21-gene signature
A test that is used to help predict whether breast cancer will spread to other parts of the body or come back. The test looks at the activity of 21 different genes in breast cancer tissue of women who have early-stage breast cancer that is estrogen receptor positive and has not spread to the lymph nodes. If there is a high risk that the cancer will spread or come back, it may be used to help plan treatment with anticancer drugs. Also called Oncotype DX breast cancer assay.
2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking a monoclonal antibody called 170, which binds to a protein called MUC-1, to a substance called 2IT-BAD, which binds radioactive substances. 2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 may be used to detect cancer cells and kill them. It is a type of immunoconjugate.
3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla MRI and 3T MRI.
3 Tesla MRI
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3T MRI.
3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 18F-FLT and fluorothymidine F 18.
3,4-benzpyrene
A chemical that comes from certain substances when they are not burned completely. It is found in car exhaust, smoke from wood fires, tobacco, oil and gas products, charred or grilled foods, and other sources. It may also be found in water and soil. 3,4-Benzpyrene can cause a skin rash, a burning feeling, skin color changes, warts, and bronchitis. It may also cause cancer. It is a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Also called benzo(a)pyrene.
3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-AP and Triapine.
3-AP
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and Triapine.
3-D
A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-dimensional.
3-dimensional
A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-D.
3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional radiation therapy and 3D-CRT.
3-dimensional radiation therapy
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and 3D-CRT.
3D-CRT
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and 3-dimensional radiation therapy.
3F8
A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.
3T MRI
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3T MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3 Tesla MRI.
4-demethoxydaunorubicin
A drug used in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of antitumor antibiotic. Also called idarubicin.
4-hydroxytamoxifen
A form of the drug tamoxifen that is made by the body after taking tamoxifen. It can also be made in the laboratory, and may help decrease breast density. A topical form of 4-hydroxytamoxifen is being studied in breast cancer screening.
4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-NQO.
4-NQO
A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.
45 CFR 46
Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.
45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46
Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 CFR 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.
5-alpha reductase inhibitor
A substance that blocks an enzyme needed by the body to make dihydrotestosterone (a male sex hormone made from testosterone). Dihydrotestosterone can cause the prostate to grow. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are used to shrink an enlarged prostate gland and to improve the flow of urine in a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor.
5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may prevent the growth of tumors by stopping cancer cells from dividing and by killing them. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called FdCyd.
5-fluorouracil
A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. 5-fluorouracil stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-FU, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil.
5-FU
A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. 5-FU stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil.
5-HT3 receptor antagonist
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
5HIAA. A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.
5-hydroxytryptamine
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called serotonin.
5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.
504 plan
An education plan for students with disabilities or certain health conditions, such as cancer. By law, these students must have the same access to school programs and activities as students without disabilities. A 504 plan may include extra help in the classroom, such as allowing the student more time to take a test or finish an assignment, or to use a computer or tape recorder. It may also include tutoring and other services, such as speech therapy and physical therapy. It is covered under the U.S. law, Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
506U78
A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called Arranon and nelarabine.
5FU/LV
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat colorectal cancer. It is also used with radiation therapy to treat esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Also called FU-LV and FU-LV regimen.
5Q minus syndrome
A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q- syndrome.
5Q- syndrome
A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q minus syndrome.
6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene attaches to the cell's DNA and may block cancer cell growth. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called irofulven.
70-gene signature
A test that is used to help predict whether breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body or come back. The test looks at the activity of 70 different genes in breast cancer tissue of women who have early-stage breast cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes. If there is a high risk that the cancer will spread or come back, it may be used to help plan treatment with anticancer drugs. Also called MammaPrint.
852A
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain adult and childhood blood cancers and other types of cancer. 852A may help the patient's immune system block tumor growth. It is a type of immune system modulator.
9-cis retinoic acid
A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of retinoid.
90Y-DOTA-biotin
A compound that contains the radioisotope yttrium Y 90 linked to the chemical biotin. Biotin is a molecule that binds strongly to the chemical streptavidin. 90Y-DOTA-biotin will find tumor cells in the body that have been targeted by an antibody linked to streptavidin and kill them. It is being studied together with CC49-streptavidin in the treatment of cancer. Also called yttrium Y 90 DOTA-biotin.
99m-Tc-Dx
A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have 99m-Tc-Dx in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc-99m Dextran and technetium Tc 99m dextran.
9cUAB30
A substance being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It blocks an enzyme that keeps cells alive by adding material to the ends of chromosomes. Blocking this enzyme may cause the cancer cells to die. 9cUAB30 is a type of retinoic acid and a type of telomerase inhibitor.
9p21
A specific part of chromosome 9 called p21, which has a gene that may be involved in stopping tumor cell growth. In some types of cancer cells, including bladder cancer cells, this small part of chromosome 9 may be missing. This may cause cancer cell growth. Checking for 9p21 may help diagnose cancer or find out if cancer has come back. 9p21 is a type of tumor marker.
A33
A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.
A6
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. A6 is a small piece of a protein called urokinase (an enzyme that dissolves blood clots or prevents them from forming). It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of antimetastatic agent. Also called urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-derived peptide A6.
AAP
An enzyme that is normally found in healthy kidneys. It may be found at high levels in the urine when there are kidney problems. It is used as a biomarker to detect damage to the kidneys caused by drugs and other agents. It may also be used to diagnose certain kidney and liver disorders. Also called alanine aminopeptidase.
abarelix
A drug used to reduce the amount of testosterone made in patients with advanced symptomatic prostate cancer for which no other treatment options are available. It belongs to the family of drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Also called Plenaxis.
ABCA1 pathway
Describes a group of proteins in a cell that work together to help remove extra cholesterol and certain fats from tissue in the body. Changes in the ABCA1 pathway may lead to diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Drugs or substances that affect this pathway are being studied in the prevention and treatment of some diseases.
ABCD rating
A staging system for prostate cancer that uses ABCD. “A” and “B” refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate. “C” refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. “D” refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body. Also called Jewett staging system and Whitmore-Jewett staging system.
abdomen
The area of the body that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.
abdominal
Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.
abdominal ultrasound
A procedure used to examine the organs in the abdomen. An ultrasound transducer (probe) is pressed firmly against the skin of the abdomen. High-energy sound waves from the transducer bounce off tissues and create echoes. The echoes are sent to a computer, which makes a picture called a sonogram. Also called transabdominal ultrasound.
abdominal x-ray
An x-ray of the organs inside the abdomen. An x-ray is a type of radiation that can pass through the body and onto film, making pictures of areas inside the body. X-rays may be used to help diagnose disease.
abdominoperineal resection
Surgery to remove the anus, the rectum, and part of the sigmoid colon through an incision made in the abdomen. The end of the intestine is attached to an opening in the surface of the abdomen and body waste is collected in a disposable bag outside of the body. This opening is called a colostomy. Lymph nodes that contain cancer may also be removed during this operation.
Abegrin
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Abegrin binds to a protein on the surface of blood vessels and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It may also prevent the spread of cancer. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent, a type of metastasis inhibitor, and a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called etaracizumab, humanized monoclonal antibody MEDI-522, and MEDI-522.
aberrant crypt foci
Clusters of abnormal tube-like glands in the lining of the colon and rectum. Aberrant crypt foci form before colorectal polyps and are one of the earliest changes that can be seen in the colon that may lead to cancer. Also called ACF.
ABI-007
A drug used to treat breast cancer that has come back or spread to other parts of the body. It is also used with carboplatin to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. ABI-007 is a form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel and may cause fewer side effects than paclitaxel. It stops cancer cells from growing and dividing, and may kill them. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called Abraxane, nanoparticle paclitaxel, paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, and protein-bound paclitaxel.
abiraterone acetate
A drug used with prednisone to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with other hormone therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Abiraterone acetate lowers the amount of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, made by the body. This may stop the growth of cancer cells that need androgens to grow. Abiraterone acetate is a type of antiandrogen. Also called Zytiga.
ablation
In medicine, the removal or destruction of a body part or tissue or its function. Ablation may be performed by surgery, hormones, drugs, radiofrequency, heat, or other methods.
abnormal
Not normal. Describes a state, condition, or behavior that is unusual or different from what is considered normal. An abnormal lesion or growth in or on the body may be benign (not cancer), precancerous or premalignant (likely to become cancer), or malignant (cancer).
ABO blood group system
A system used to group human blood into different types, based on the presence or absence of certain markers on the surface of red blood cells. The four main blood types are A, B, O, and AB. For a blood transfusion, the ABO blood group system is used to match the blood type of the donor and the person receiving the transfusion. People with blood type O can donate blood to anyone and are called universal donors. People with blood type AB can accept blood from all donors and are called universal recipients. People with type A or B can receive matching blood or type O blood.
ABR test
A test used to detect some types of hearing loss, such as hearing loss caused by injury or tumors that affect nerves involved in hearing. Electrodes are placed on the head and certain tones or clicking sounds are made. The electrodes measure nerve signals in the brain when it reacts to the sounds. Also called auditory brain stem response test, BAER test, and brain stem auditory evoked response test.
Abraxane
A drug used to treat breast cancer that has come back or spread to other parts of the body. It is also used with carboplatin to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Abraxane is a form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel and may cause fewer side effects than paclitaxel. It stops cancer cells from growing and dividing, and may kill them. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called ABI-007, nanoparticle paclitaxel, paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, and protein-bound paclitaxel.
abscess
An enclosed collection of pus in tissues, organs, or confined spaces in the body. An abscess is a sign of infection and is usually swollen and inflamed.
absolute neutrophil count
A measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help the body fight infection. An absolute neutrophil count may be used to check for infection, inflammation, leukemia, and other conditions. Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy, may reduce the absolute neutrophil count. Also called ANC.
absolute risk
A measure of the risk of a certain event happening. In cancer research, it is the likelihood that a person who is free of a specific type of cancer at a given age will develop that cancer over a certain period of time. For example, a woman 35 years of age, with no known risk factors for breast cancer, has an absolute risk of getting breast cancer over a lifetime of 90 years of about 13.5%, meaning one out of every seven women will develop breast cancer.
absorption
The process of taking nutrients from the digestive system into the blood so they can be used in the body.
ABT-263
A substance being studied in the treatment of lymphomas and other types of cancer. It blocks some of the enzymes that keep cancer cells from dying. It is a type of Bcl-2 family inhibitor. Also called navitoclax.
ABT-510
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of angiogenesis inhibitor.
ABT-751
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called sulfonamides.
ABT-869
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. ABT-869 blocks the action of several growth factors. It may also block the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogensis inhibitor. Also called multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor ABT-869.
ABT-888
A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancers caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. ABT-888 may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Also called PARP-1 inhibitor ABT-888 and veliparib.
ABVD
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vinblastine sulfate, and dacarbazine. Also called ABVD regimen.
ABVD regimen
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vinblastine sulfate, and dacarbazine. Also called ABVD.
ABVE
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide. Also called ABVE regimen, DBVE, and DBVE regimen.
ABVE regimen
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide. Also called ABVE, DBVE, and DBVE regimen.
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