Drug Dictionary

(61)Cu-ATSM
A lipophilic copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazone) labeled with the positron-emitting isotope (61)Cu with hypoxia-selective and radioisotopic activities. With a high membrane permeability and redox potential, (61)Cu-ATSM easily enters and selectively resides in hypoxic cells. The extent of (61)Cu-ATSM retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia with positron emission tomography (PET).
123-I-MIP-1095
An iodine 123-radiolabled small molecule that exhibits high affinity for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential use in molecular imaging. 123-I-MIP-1095, a radiolabeled glutamate-urea-lysine analogue, selectively binds PSMA, which allows imaging of PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells with gamma scintigraph. PSMA is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of various solid tumors.
131I-TM-601
An iodine 131 (I 131) radioconjugate of the synthetic chlorotoxin (CTX) TM-601 with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. CTX is a 36 amino acid neurotoxin found in the venom of the giant yellow scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus that preferentially binds malignant cells of neuroectodermal origin. The recombinant version of this peptide, TM-601, is expressed in and purified from E. coli and then covalently linked to I 131 to produce 131I-TM-601. 131I-TM-601 binds to tumor cells of neuroectodermal origin and is internalized; administered once, it may be used as a radioimaging agent; repeated administration may result in a tumor-specific, cumulative radiocytotoxic dose of I 131. In addition, TM-601 alone, similar to native CTX, may inhibit angiogenesis due to its ability to bind to and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), an endopeptidase involved in tissue remodeling processes such as angiogenesis.
14C BMS-275183
The orally bioavailable C-4 methyl carbonate analogue of paclitaxel, labeled with radioactive carbon 14, with radioisotope and potential antineoplastic activities. 14C BMS-275183 binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule disassembly, which may result in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and inhibition of cell division, and subsequently cell death. This agent may be useful for treating multi-drug resistant (MDR) tumors because it does not appear to be a substrate for P-glycoprotein.
16, 16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2
A stable derivative of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with potential hematopoietic activity. Administration of 16,16 dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) appears to lead to increased formation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Even though the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent may stimulate hematopoiesis by activating the Wnt signaling pathway, which increases cellular levels of beta-catenin, a subunit of the cadherin protein complex.
18-F-fluoroacetate
A radioconjugate and an acetate analog labeled with fluorine F 18 ((18)F-FAC), a positron-emitting isotope, with potential prostate tumor tracer property using positron emission tomography (PET). Although the mechanism of action is unclear, fluorine F 18 acetate preferentially accumulates in tumor tissue, serving as a tracer for imaging tumors with PET. Fluorine 18 has a longer radioactive half-life (110 min) vs. the half-life of carbon-11 acetate (20.4 min). Furthermore, (18)F-FAC showed a rapid clearance from liver and extensive excretion to bile and urine in comparison with carbon-11 acetate, therefore this tracer may be a useful alternative to C-11 acetate for the detection of prostate tumors by PET.
18F-FHBG
A fluorine-18-labeled acycloguanosine derivative substrate for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk). 18F-FHBG is used as a reporter probe to image the expression of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene in gene transfer therapy. HSV1-tk and and HSV1-tk-metabolized 18F-FHBG co-localize, allowing positron emission tomography (PET) localization of HSV1-tk gene-transfected tissue and the assessment of gene transfer efficiency.
18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside
A radiofluorinated 2-nitroimidazole derivative with hypoxia-specific tracer activity. 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside is reduced under hypoxic conditions and is often seen in various malignant tumors, forming highly reactive intermediates. In its reduced form, 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside covalently binds to macromolecules, thereby accumulating in hypoxic cells and allowing radioisotopic imaging of these particular cells. Compared to 18F-misonidazole, 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside has a lower octanol:water partition coefficient; it therefore has less tendency to accumulate in lipophilic tissues and exhibits a faster renal clearance, leading to an improved imaging ability of hypoxic tissue.
18F-labeled mini-PEG spacered RGD dimer
A radiotracer containing a pegylated dimeric Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide (NH2-mini-PEG-E[c(RGDyK)]2 or PRGD2) radiolabeled with fluorine 18F-fluorobenzoate (18F-FB), with potential alphaVbeta3 integrin imaging activity upon positron emission topography (PET). Upon administration, the RGD moiety of 18F-labeled mini-PEG spacered RGD dimer (18F-FPRGD2) binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin. Upon PET, alphaVbeta3-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and the degree of tumor angiogenesis can be determined. This agent exhibits increased integrin receptor binding affinity, tumor cell uptake and increased radiolabeling yield as compared to the non-pegylated form (18F-FRGD2). Integrins, transmembrane glycoproteins, may be upregulated on proliferating tumor vessel endothelial cells and various cancer cells; their overexpression has been associated with neovascularization, differentiation, proliferation of tumor cells, metastasis and an overall poor prognosis.
2'-F-ara-deoxyuridine
A deoxyuridine prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon cellular uptake, 2’-F-ara-deoxyuridine (FAU) is phosphorylated by thymidine kinase to FAU monophosphate and subsequently methylated in the 5'-position by thymidylate synthase (TS) to its activated form, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl) 5-methyluracil monophosphate (FMAUMP). FMAUMP is incorporated into DNA leading to an inhibition of DNA synthesis and so cell growth. The catalytic activity of TS is critical to activation of FAU and subsequent incorporation into DNA. FAU may be beneficial in the case of tumors with high TS activity that are resistant to TS inhibitors.
2-0, 3-0 desulfated heparin
A non-anticoagulant heparin derivative in which the 2-O and 3-O sulfate groups of heparin are removed, with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH) prevents the interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) to its ligands, such as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), Mac-1(CD11b/CD18), the nuclear protein high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), carboxymethyl lysine-bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) and members of the S100 calgranulin family. In addition, this agent inhibits the enzymes heparanase, cathepsin G, and human leukocyte elastase, which are involved in inflammation and metastasis. ODSH also inhibits selectins, thereby preventing the adhesion of tumor cells to endothelium and platelets. Altogether, this may inhibit tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. Unlike heparin, this agent does not induce heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). RAGE, a receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in inflammation and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers.
2-fluoropropionyl-labeled pegylated dimeric RGD peptide
A radiopharmaceutical agent comprised of a pegylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-based peptide labeled with 2-fluoropropionyl, with potential alphaVbeta3 integrin imaging activity upon positron emission topography (PET). The RGD moiety of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled pegylated dimeric RGD peptide targets and binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin. Upon PET imaging, alphaVbeta3 integrin-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and expression levels can be quantified. Compared to other fluorine F 18 labeled RGD-containing peptides, this agent shows increased affinity to alphaVbeta3 integrin, enhanced tumor uptake as well as improved pharmacokinetics. alphaVbeta3 integrin, overexpressed on certain tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells, plays a key role in angiogenesis, tumor proliferation and survival.
2-hydroxyflutamide depot
A depot formulation containing a bioresorbable, controlled-release, calcium sulphate-based paste of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen 2-hydroxyflutamide (2-HOF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon injection into the tumor site in the prostate, 2-hydroxyflutamide depot slowly releases 2-HOF, which competitively binds to androgen receptors (ARs), blocking the binding of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This may inhibit androgen-dependent DNA and protein synthesis, resulting in tumor cell growth arrest and decreased cellular proliferation. In addition, 2-HOF inhibits nuclear uptake of androgen in androgen-responsive tissues.
2-hydroxyoleic acid
An orally bioavailable, synthetic analog of the fatty acid oleic acid, with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA) activates sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), thereby increasing the concentration of sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the tumor cell membrane and decreasing membrane levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). This restores the normal, healthy levels and ratios of membrane lipids. By restoring normal membrane lipid structure and composition, this agent inhibits membrane-protein associated signaling and the aberrant activity of signaling pathways in certain tumor cells, including the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/AKt pathways. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation, induces tumor cell differentiation, and eventually can cause cell death.
2G-1 TCR retroviral vector-transduced lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous human T-lymphocytes isolated from renal cell cancer (RCC) patient and transduced with 2G-1 TCR, a retroviral vector encoding the alpha and beta chains of a T-cell receptor that recognizes TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) bound to death receptor 4 (DR4), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. After transduction, expansion in culture, and introduction into the RCC patient, 2G-1 TCR retroviral vector-transduced lymphocytes may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against RCC cells with TRAIL bound to DR4 on their surfaces. TRAIL, a member of the TNF superfamily, is a homotrimeric type II membrane protein that rapidly induces oligomerization of receptor intracellular death domains and apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells when bound to its receptors; DR4 (TRAIL receptor 1), a member of the TNF receptor family, is overexpressed by a variety of malignant cell types.
3'-aminomethyl nicotine-P. aeruginosa r-exoprotein A conjugate vaccine
A hapten-carrier immunoconjugate composed of the hapten trans-3′-aminomethyl nicotine conjugated to a recombinant P. aeruginosa exoprotein A, rendered nontoxic through amino acid depletion, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon vaccination with 3'-aminomethyl nicotine-P. aeruginosa r-exoprotein A conjugate vaccine, the immune system may produce anti-nicotine antibodies. Antibody-bound nicotine cannot pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) to activate brain nicotine receptors. Nicotine, a small organic molecule that is notimmunogenic, must be haptenized and conjugated to a carrierprotein, such as nontoxic recombinant P. aeruginosa exoprotein A, to induce an antibody response. Aluminiumhydroxide may be used as an adjuvant for this vaccine.
3'-C-ethynylcytidine
A synthetic cytidine nucleoside containing a covalently bound ethynyl group with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. 3'-C-ethynylcytidine is metabolized in tumor cells to ethynylcytidine triphosphate (ECTP), which inhibits RNA synthesis by competitive inhibition of RNA polymerases I, II and III; subsequently, RNase L is activated, resulting in apoptosis. RNase L is a potent antiviral and antiproliferative endoribonuclease that cleaves singled stranded RNA, causes 28s rRNA fragmentation, and activates Janus Kinase (JAK), a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis signaling molecule.
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
A ring-substituted amphetamine derivative, structurally related to the hallucinogen mescaline, with entactogenic, neurotoxic, and motor-stimulatory activities. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces an acute, rapid enhancement in both the release of serotonin from and the inhibition of serotonin reuptake by serotonergic nerve endings in the brain. Once within the cell, MDMA depletes stores of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) via acute oxidative inactivation; in turn, depleted stores of TPH leave cell terminals open to damage from oxidative stress, possibly a source of MDMA neurotoxicity. This agent also induces norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine release and can act directly on a number of receptors, including alpha 2-adrenergic and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A receptors. MDMA may suppress the dyskinesia associated with long-term use of L-dopamine (L-DOPA) without affecting the efficacy of L-DOPA treatment.
3-deazauridine
A synthetic analogue of nucleoside uridine lacking a ring nitrogen in the 3-position. 3-deazauridine inhibits cytidine synthase, thereby reducing intracellular levels of cytidine and deoxycytidine and disrupting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may trigger apoptosis and enhance differentiation of neoplastic cells..
4'-iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin
An iodinated doxorubicin analogue with antiamyloid activity. 4'-Iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin (IDOX) binds with high affinity to five types of natural amyloid fibrils including immunoglobulin light chains, amyloid A, transthyretin (methionine-30 variant), ß-protein (Alzheimer), and ß2-microglobulin. This agent may inhibit fibril growth, increasing the solubility of amyloid tissue deposits and facilitating their clearance. IDOX has also been shown to insulin amyloid fibrillogenesis in vitro.
4-nitroestrone 3-methyl ether
A synthetic derivative of estradiol. 4-nitroestrone 3-methyl ether inhibits estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), a progesterone-induced secretory endometrial enzyme which affects estrogen receptor levels. This agent has been shown to be an effective growth inhibitor of some chemically induced animal mammary tumors.
4-peptide melanoma vaccine
An emulsion of 4 melanoma peptides with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, 4-peptide melanoma vaccine may stimulate an immune response against 4 different melanoma associated antigens. This may lead to a reduction in tumor cell proliferation of cancer cells expressing these antigens.
5-FITC-labeled GI-heptapeptide
A radioconjugate consisting of the 7 amino acid peptide sequence ASYNYDA (GI heptapeptide) and labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (5-FITC), with potential imaging activity. Upon topical application to the esophageal mucosa using a spray, the heptapeptide moiety of 5-FITC-labeled GI-heptapeptide binds to abnormal cells in the esophagus; the FITC moiety allows for imaging with white light and the area of interest for biopsies can then be visualized.
5-fluorouracil/salicylic acid topical solution
A topical formulation containing 0.5 % of antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 10% of salicylic acid, with potential antimitotic and keratolytic activity. Upon cutaneous application, 5-FU in the 5-fluorouracil/salicylic acid topical solution impedes pyrimidine metabolism thereby inhibiting cell growth, while the salicylic acid induces anti-inflammatory response and results in keratolytic effect. This may result in the breakdown of keratinocytes and prevent proliferation of keratinocytes locally.
5-[18F]fluorouracil
The fluorine-18 (18F)-radiolabeled pyrimidine analog 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with positron-emitting activity. Upon administration, 5-[18F]fluorouracil distribution in tumor tissue may be measured with positron emission tomography (PET). The degree of 5-[18F]fluorouracil uptake in tumor tissue may help to predict the response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy or to determine the response to other therapeutic agents used to treat 5-FU-sensitive tumors.
50% oxygen/50% nitrous oxide premix
An equimolar gas mixture of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with potential analgesic activity. Upon inhalation, 50% oxygen/50% nitrous oxide premix produces rapidly reversible analgesia. The exact mechanism through which nitrous oxide exerts its analgesic effect has yet to be fully elucidated, but it appears to be associated with the neuronal release of endogenous opioid peptides.
6,8-bis(benzylthio)octanoic acid
A racemic mixture of the enantiomers of a synthetic alpha-lipoic lipoic acid analogue with potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, 6,8-bis(benzylthio)octanoic acid has been shown to inhibit metabolic and regulatory processes required for cell growth in solid tumors. Both enantiomers in the racemic mixture exhibit antineoplastic activity.
6-azauridine
A synthetic triazine analogue of uridine with antimetabolite activity. 6-azauridine inhibits de novo pyrimidine synthesis and DNA synthesis and is converted intracellularly into mono, di-, and triphosphate derivatives, which incorporate into RNA and inhibit protein synthesis.
6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/ fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases isoform 3 inhibitor ACT-PFK-158
An inhibitor of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases (PFK-2/FBPase) isoform 3 (PFKFB3) and derivative of 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-[4-pyridinyl]-2-propen-1-one (3PO), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PFKFB3 inhibitor PFK-158 binds to and inhibits the activity of PFKFB3, which leads to the inhibition of both the glycolytic pathway in and glucose uptake by cancer cells. This prevents the production of macromolecules and energy that causes the enhanced cellular proliferation in cancer cells as compared to that of normal, healthy cells. Depriving cancer cells of nutrients and energy leads to the inhibition of cancer cell growth. PFKFB3, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, is highly expressed and active in human cancer cells; it plays a key role in increasing both glycolytic flux in and proliferation of cancer cells.
7-cyanoquinocarcinol
A semisynthetic analogue of the Streptomyces melanovinaceus-derived tetracyclic antitumor antibiotic quinocarmycin with potential antineoplastic activity. Quinocarmycin belongs to the naphthyridinomycin/saframycin class of antitumor antibiotics. These antibiotics appear to act through DNA alkylation.
7-hydroxystaurosporine
A synthetic derivative of staurosporine with antineoplastic activity. 7-hydroxystaurosporine inhibits many phosphokinases, including the serine/threonine kinase AKT, calcium-dependent protein kinase C, and cyclin-dependent kinases. This agent arrests tumor cells in the G1/S of the cell cycle and prevents nucleotide excision repair by inhibiting the G2 checkpoint kinase chk1, resulting in apoptosis.
8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate ointment
An ointment formulation containing the sulfate salt of 8-hydroxyquinoline in a petrolatum and lanolin base with skin-protecting activity. Upon topical application, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate exhibits antiseptic activity while lanolin moisturizes and softens skin.
851B gel
A topical gel containing a peptide derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV). Application of 851B gel may stimulate the host immune system to trigger a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to cells that express HPV.
A-Hydrocort
(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)
abagovomab
A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation.
abatacept
A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellulardomain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked toa modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1(IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes.
Abelcet
(Other name for: liposomal amphotericin B)
Aberel
(Other name for: tretinoin)
abexinostat
A novel, broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Abexinostat inhibits several isoforms of HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; and the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, upregulated in many tumor types, is an an enzyme that is responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins.
Abitrexate
(Other name for: methotrexate)
Ablavar
(Other name for: gadofosveset trisodium)
absorbable adhesion barrier gel
An isotonic, sterile, absorbable adhesion barrier gel composed of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethylcellulose, with protective activity. Upon application of a single layer into the uterine cavity at the end of any hysteroscopic surgery, the absorbable adhesion barrier gel may provide a protective barrier which protects the traumatized tissue and allows for healing. This gel may therefore prevent the formation of post-surgical intrauterine adhesions.
absorbable gelatin sponge
A sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional chemotherapy, absorbable gelatin sponge may be used to embolize arteries in the region of a tumor in order to block or retard blood flow; this blockage results in a locally increased concentration of chemotherapeutic agents delivered to the tumor when chemotherapeutic agents are infused into the embolized arterial circulation upstream of the blockage.
acadesine
A 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, a purine nucleoside analog, and a nucleotide biosynthesis precursor with B cell pro-apoptotic activity. Following cellular uptake, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICA ribotide (ZMP), which mimics 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK kinase (AMPKK) are activated by ZMP, which appears to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis. Acadesine-induced apoptosis also appears to require cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation and is p53-independent. However, the exact mechanism of acadesine-induced apoptosis is unknown. T cells are significantly less susceptible than B cells to acadesine-induced apoptosis. AMPK regulates several cellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, protein synthesis, and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria.
acai berry juice
A juice product obtained from the fruit of the acai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Besides high amounts of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, acai berry is rich in phytonutrients such as anthocyanins and flavones which are potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species. The fruit also contains high amounts of the flavone velutin which exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. Velutin is able to inhibit the degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB), thereby blocking the activation of NF-kB, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK. Inhibition of these processes results in suppression of the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6.
acarbose
A complex oligosaccharide used as a hypoglycemic agent in diabetes management. Acarbose inhibits enzymes required in catabolism of carbohydrates, specifically pancreatic alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, and the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases, which hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. When acarbose is orally administered, less digestion of complex carbohydrates occur and less glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, thereby producing a smaller rise in postprandial blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate load.
Accutane
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix
A human dermis-derived allograft material. Acellular cadaveric dermal matrix (ACDM) is derived from human cadaveric dermis from which the epidermis, all viable cells and major histocompatibility class (MHC) II antigens have been removed to minimize alloimmunogenicity, while the dermal collagen matrix is preserved. ACDM may placed over wounds to aid as a substitute for skin when necessary such as for surgical reconstruction or for protection against wound exposure and breakdown and wound infection.
acenocoumarol
A 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative with anticoagulant activity. As a vitamin K antagonist, acenocoumarol inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, thereby inhibiting the reduction of vitamin K and the availability of vitamin KH2. This prevents gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues near the N-terminals of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, including factor II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S. This prevents their activity and thus thrombin formation. Compared to other coumarin derivatives, acenocoumarol has a short half-life.
Aceon
(Other name for: perindopril erbumine)
acetylsalicylic acid
An orally administered non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation. This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties.
acetylsalicylic acid/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule
An orally bioavailable combination pill containing aspirin, simvastatin, atenolol, ramipril and thiazide with preventive activity against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor with antiplatelet, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; simvastatin is a statin with a cholesterol lowering effect; and the beta-blocker atenolol as well as the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the thiazide diuretic all have blood pressure lowering activity. Upon oral administration of aspirin/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule, the combined effects of the active ingredients in this formulation lower the risk of CVD.
Achromycin
(Other name for: tetracycline hydrochloride)
Aciphex
(Other name for: rabeprazole sodium)
acivicin
A modified amino acid and structural analog of glutamine. Acivicin inhibits glutamine amidotransferases in the purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in cell lines dependent on glutamine metabolism.
aclarubicin
An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
Acnestrol
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
ACNU 50
(Other name for: nimustine)
acodazole
A synthetic imidazoquinoline with antineoplastic activity. Acodazole intercalates into DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA replication. Use of this agent has been associated with significant cardiotoxicity.
Actemra
(Other name for: tocilizumab)
ActHIB
(Other name for: Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine)
Actigall
(Other name for: ursodiol)
Actimmune
(Other name for: recombinant interferon gamma)
actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab conjugated to the alpha-emitting radioisotope actinium Ac 225 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 antigen, delivering a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation to cells expressing CD33. CD33 is a cell surface antigen expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and overexpressed on myeloid leukemia cells.
Actiq
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)
activated marrow infiltrating lymphocytes
A preparation of cells, which consists of autologous marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs), that are manipulated in vitro, with potential antitumor and immune stimulating activities. MILs are harvested from autologous bone marrow from multiple myeloma patients and, in vitro, are exposed to and activated by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies covalently attached to super-paramagnetic microbeads. After removal of the beads and expansion of the cells in culture, the activated MILs (aMILs) are re-introduced into the patient. The aMILs possess enhanced myeloma specificity, and are able to infiltrate the tumor microenvironment and initiate tumor cell lysis. CD3 and CD28, co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of T-lymphocytes, play a key role in the activation of T-cells.
Activella
(Other name for: estradiol/norethindrone acetate tablet)
ActiVin
(Other name for: IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract)
Actonel
(Other name for: risedronate sodium)
acyclovir sodium
The sodium salt form of acyclovir, a synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV.
Aczone Gel
(Other name for: dapsone gel, 5%)
Ad-hCMV-Flt3L
A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the soluble, immune-mediated stimulatory gene human fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration, Ad-hCMV-Flt3L is transduced into tumor cells and Flt3L is expressed. Flt3L stimulates both the proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their migration to the tumor site. Upon exposure to the tumor-associated antigens (TAA) released from dying glioma cells, which were killed by thymidine kinase-mediated valacyclovir-induced tumor cell death, the DCs initiate a specific immune response against any remaining TAA-expressing tumor cells. Flt3L is a hematopoietic growth factor and ligand for the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor.
Ad-hCMV-TK
A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter. This agent, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration into the peritumoral region after tumor resection, adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, and HSV-tk is expressed. Tumor cells expressing HSV-tk are sensitive to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV), kills the tumor cells expressing HSV-tk. The release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, directed aganst any remaining tumor cells.
Ad-REIC/DKK3 vaccine
A replication incompetent adenoviral vector encoding the full-length tumor suppressor gene Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cells (REIC or DKK3) (ad-REIC/DKK3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, tumor cells express REIC/DKK3 protein. This may result in the activation of c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) and ultimately apoptosis via Bcl2 suppression and caspase-3 activation. Expression of REIC/DKK3 is normal in healthy cells but reduced or absent in many cancer cells; Forced overexpression of REIC/DKK3 in cancer cells may lead to an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and reduction of tumor cell growth while sparing normal, healthy cells naturally expressing endogenous REIC/DKK3.
Ad-sig-hMUC-1/ecdCD40L vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human MUC-1 (hMUC-1) linked to the extracellular domain (ecd) of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) and an adenovirus signal sequence that encodes a secretory signal peptide (Ad-sig) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Due to the presence of the secretory signal peptide expressed by Ad-sig in the vaccine construct, transfected cells may secrete a fusion protein composed of hMUC-1 and the CD40L ecd. The CD40L moiety part of the fusion protein binds to CD40 receptors on dendritic cells (DCs). Subsequently, DCs may be activated and migrate, T-cells may expand, and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress hMUC-1 may follow. MUC-1 is a hypoglycosylated TAA overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells.
Ad5-CMV-NIS
A recombinant type 5 adenovirus (Ad5), encoding the gene for the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) linked to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, with potential gene transfection activity. Upon intratumoral injection, Ad5-CMV-NIS is taken up by tumor cells, resulting in the cellular expression of NIS. Subsequently, orally administered iodine 131 is taken up by NIS-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the selective accumulation of a cytotoxic dose of beta and gamma radiation in non-thyroidal tumor cells, sparing adjacent normal tissue. NIS, an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein, is an ion pump that actively transports iodide into cells which concentrate iodine; in addition to thyroid epithelial cells, it is found in non-thyroidal tissues including the salivary glands, the gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary glands.
Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP
A second generation, replication-competent adenovirus type 5 containing a yeast cytosine deaminase(yCD)/mutant sr39 herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase fusion (yCD/mutTKsr39) gene and the 11.6 kDa adenovirus death protein (ADP) gene with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral administration and transduction of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP into tumor cells and subsequent expression of cytosine deaminase and viral thymidine kinase, administered prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir are converted into their respective metabolites 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and ganciclovir-5-monophosphate (ganciclovir-MP); 5-FU is subsequently metabolized to cytotoxic active metabolites 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate (F-UMP) and 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate (F-dUMP); ganciclovir-TP subsequently is converted by mammalian thymidine kinase to cytotoxic ganciclovir-triphosphate (ganciclovir -TP). Tumor cells adjacent to tumor cells transduced with this agent may be killed through a "bystander effect". ADP may enhance spread and oncolytic activity of replication-competent adenoviruses. In addition to its oncolytic activity, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP may exhibit radiosensitizing activity.
Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD
An RGD-4C–modified, infectivity-enhanced, bicistronic type 5 adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, a therapeutic suicide gene, and the somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Modification with the double cyclic peptide RGD-4C allows the virus to bind to cellular integrins, frequently expressed on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells, instead of the coxsackie and adenovirus (CAR) receptor, which is often nonfunctional in ovarian cancer cells. Upon intratumoral administration, Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD transfects tumor cells and expresses the HSV-tk gene. After subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue prodrug like ganciclovir (GCV), expressed HSV-tk phosphorylates and activates the prodrug, which may result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in HSV-tk-expressing cancer cells. Additionally, as a bystander effect, adjacent non-transfected cells may be killed by the activated antiviral drug. SSTR2 expression allows imaging of gene transfer into tumor cells using a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue.
Ad5CMV-p53 gene
A replication-defective adenoviral-CMV vector that encodes a wild-type p53 gene. Ad5CMV-p53 induces tumor cells that have been transfected with the vector to produce wild-type p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is deleted or mutated in a significant number of cancers. In transfected tumor cells, the wild-type p-53 gene product exerts an antitumor effect by blocking cell cycle progression at the G1/S regulation point, activating DNA repair proteins in the presence of DNA damage, and initiating apoptosis when DNA damage is irreparable.
Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells
Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with the replication-deficient adenoviral vector Ad5F53 encoding the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transmembrane latent membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LMP1/LMP2) with potential immunostimulatory activity. Vaccination with Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells may stimulate a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against LMP1- and LMP2-expressing tumor positive cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP1 and LMP2 are expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin disease.
Adanon
(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)
Adapin
(Other name for: doxepin hydrochloride)
Adderall XR
(Other name for: dextroamphetamine-amphetamine)
adecatumumab
A recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the tumor associated antigen (TAA) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential antitumor activity. Adecatumumab binds to EpCAM, which may result in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. EpCAM (CD326), a cell surface protein upregulated on many tumor cell types, promotes the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells; for some cancers, overexpression has been correlated with decreased survival.
adefovir dipivoxil
An acyclic nucleotide adenine analogue with potent antiviral activity. Adefovir is activated in vivo to a diphosphate metabolite which is incorporated into viral DNA, leading to viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase inhibition, DNA chain termination and impairment of viral replication. This agent inhibits the reverse transcriptases of hepatitis B, herpes and HIV viruses, induces natural killer cell activity, and stimulates endogenous interferon production. Viral resistance to adefovir develops at a slower rate compared to other antivirals.
adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102
An orally bioavailable, synthetic, highly selective adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102 selectively binds to and activates the cell surface-expressed A3AR, deregulating Wnt and NF-kB signal transduction pathways downstream, which may result in apoptosis of A3AR-expressing tumor cells. A3AR, a G protein-coupled receptor, is highly expressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and plays an important role in cellular proliferation.
adenovector encoding MDA7
A nonreplicating adenoviral vector (adenovector) encoding the melanoma differentiation-associated 7 gene (MDA7) with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection and adenovector-mediated gene transfer of MDA7 into tumor cells, the expressed MDA7 transgene may inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis.
adenovector-transduced AP1903-inducible MyD88/CD40-expressing autologous PSMA-specific prostate cancer vaccine BPX-201
A genetically-modified, dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in which the autologous cells are transduced with an adenoviral vector expressing the tumor antigen prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and a fusion protein composed of synthetic ligand inducible adjuvant iMC composed of a drug-inducible costimulatory CD40 receptor (iCD40) and the adaptor protein MyD88, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The iCD40 contains a membrane-localized cytoplasmic CD40 domain fused to the FK506 modified drug-binding protein 12 (FKBP12). Upon intradermal administration of BPX-201, these DCs accumulate in local draining lymph nodes. Twenty-four hours after vaccination, the dimerizing agent AP1903 is administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding domain, leading to iMC oligomerization and activation of iCD40 and MyD88-mediated signaling in iMC-expressing DCs. This signaling pathway activates the DCs and stimulates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against host tumor cells that express PSMA. PSMA, a glycoprotein secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells, is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and is used as a tumor marker for both diagnosis and treatment evaluation. MyD88 is involved in interleukin 1 receptor (IL1R) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling.
adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine
A replication-defective, E1- and E2b-deleted oncolytic adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding an epitope of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine expresses a highly immunogenic analogue of CEA [CAP1-(6D)]. Upon administration, this vaccine may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the CEA antigen, thereby resulting in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. CEA, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Deletion of early genes E1 and E2b in Ad5 potentially circumvents pre-existing anti-adenovirus immunity and is capable of inducing strong immune responses.
adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase
An adenoviral vector engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, which, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, sensitizing tumor cells that overexpress HSV-tk to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequently, a low dose of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV) is given, which may preferentially kill tumor cells containing the adenoviral vector and overexpressing HSV-tk. Release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response.
adenoviral-transduced hIL-12-expressing autologous dendritic cells INXN-3001 plus activator ligand INXN-1001
Autologous dendritic cells tranduced with a replication incompetent adenovirus encoding human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (INXN-3001) in combination with the proprietary orally bioavailable, small molecule activator ligand INXN-1001, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Production of IL-12 is controlled by an inducible DNA element that allows transcription initiation only in the presence of the ligand inducer INXN-1001. Upon intratumoral injection of INXN-3001 and subsequent oral administration of activator ligand, INXN-1001 is able to induce expression of IL-12 in INXN-3001. IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells, inducing the secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As INXN-1001 regulates both the timing and the levels of IL-12 expression, IL-12 toxicity can be reduced.
adenovirus 5-human guanylyl cyclase C-PADRE vaccine
A replication-defective, recombinant adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding human guanylyl cyclase C (hGCC) and the synthetic Pan DR epitope (PADRE), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon intramuscular administration, the Ad5-hGCC-PADRE vaccine expresses hGCC, which may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the hGCC antigen. This results in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and leads to tumor death. The hGCC protein is normally restricted to intestinal epithelial cells but is overexpressed by metastatic colorectal tumors. PADRE is a helper T-lymphocyte epitope that is able to augment the magnitude and duration of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response.
adenovirus B7-1
A gene-viral vector complex comprised of an adenovirus vector and B7-1 gene targeting the CD80 antigen. Adenovirus B7-1 is used as a component in antineoplastic vaccines to elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response.
adenovirus encoding E.coli PNP
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (Ad/PNP) used as a prodrug activating agent. Administered intratumorally, Ad/PNP expresses the enzyme PNP, which may catalyze systematically administrated fludarabine phosphate prodrug into its active form 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). F-Ade inhibits DNA polymerase alpha, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA primase, thereby interrupting DNA synthesis and inhibiting tumor cell growth. Localized prodrug activation provides targeted chemotherapy, thereby potentially reducing systemic side effects.
adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1
A replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 with potential membrane water channel activity. Upon transfection of salivary glands, adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 (AdhAQP1) directs human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) expression in the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of salivary secretory cells, which may result in increased saliva production. hAQP1, a water channel protein, is one of several highly conserved water channel proteins that mediate water permeability in cells of water-transporting tissues.
adenovirus encoding rat Her-2/neu
A replication-defective oncolytic adenovirus, encoding rat Her-2/neu (ErbB-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus encoding rat HER-2/neu may induce an immune response against tumor cells expressing the HER-2/neu antigen, which may result in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Her-2/neu, a tumor-associated antigen and member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types.
adenovirus encoding recombinant human endostatin
A replication-defective, recombinant oncolytic adenovirus encoding human endostatin with potential antineoplastic activity. Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is an important angiogenesis inhibitor. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus infects and replicates in tumor cells. The expressed endostatin may inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis which may result in a reduction of tumor growth.
adenovirus encoding tyrosinase, MART-1/MAGE-A6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding three full-length human melanoma associated antigens (MAAs), tyrosinase, melan-A (MART-1) and the melanoma antigen A6 (MAGEA6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration, adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-transduced autologous DC vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. Tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, catalyzes the first step of melanin synthesis in melanocytes. Vaccination with multi-antigen modified DC may improve the efficacy of the DC immunotherapy.
adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector encoding HER-2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against HER-2-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth.HER-2, a tyrosine kinase receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) (also known as neu and ErbB2), is overexpressed by some breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers.
adenovirus vector
One of a number of genetically-engineered adenoviruses designed to insert a gene of interest into a eukaryotic cell where the gene of interest is subsequently expressed. Unlike most other vectors, adenovirus vectors have the ability to infect post-mitotic cells. Thus, these agents are especially useful for gene transfer into neuronal cells.
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